Linux Commands list for beginners

An article that will show a basic Linux Commands list for beginners.

Linux Commands list for Beginners

Linux is one of the most popular open source operating system that is used by programmers around the world. It is easy to install and is loaded with incredible features that work efficiently on any hardware. Linux is also fully customizable and can be modified as per your hardware and software requirements. Whether you’re new to Linux or have been a fan of this operating system for a long time, you should be familiar with a basic Linux command list for beginners that will improve your user experience. Click here to read more about Linux Operating System


Linux commands List


The Linux Terminal

Linux terminal is a system console that is available in the Linux kernel. It acts like a medium for input and output operations for a Linux system. It is very similar to Command Line in Windows, but offers unique functionality and operations on the system to the user using Linux command list. You might think, terminal is an old-fashioned way of communicating with the computer; think again! It performs multiple tasks at one go, and you can navigate and conduct directory operations with ease.

Here is a basic Linux commands list to help beginners find their ways in this operating system with easy to follow rules.


  1. File command

The file command checks the file type of any file regardless of its extension. This command is useful if you’re unable to check a file’s type via traditional methods. You just need to open the Linux Terminal and pass the command followed by the name of the file. A user can determine the type of file for a single as well as of multiple files at the same time.


file filename


  1. mkdir command

mkdir is the short form for “Make Directory.” mkdir is used to create directories on a file system and to get details on the permission of the file.  This is one of the essential commands in the Linux Commands List and lets a user make different directories in the file system. If you’re using the Linux operating system for the first time, this command will eventually help you in creating and managing different libraries with ease.


mkdir foldername


  1. The cd command in Linux

The cd command (Change Directory) is used to change the directory in Linux. The command changes the current directory in which the user is presently working. Using “cd/” command will get you back to the root directory, no matter where you’re in the system.


cd [option] [directory]


cd /usr/local/share/Lion/Lion2

cd Lion 2

  1. The cp command in Linux

The cp command is used to copy files and directories from one location to another on the file system. The command from Linux command list lets you create copies of your files that are available on the Linux file system only.


cp [options] source destination


cp file.a file.b


  1. Mv command

The Mv command is used to move files and directories from one location to another. Like the cp command, the Mv command copies the file to a new location but deletes the file from its source.


mv [options] source destination


mv test1 test2 test3 oldbackup/


  1. The rm command

The rm command in the Linux shell removes the files and directories from the system. It is one of the essential commands in the Linux Commands List and helps you delete unwanted data from the system, with simply few steps.


rm [option] File


rm /home/chope/-file.txt


  1. Linux cat command

The cat command is used to preview or print the contents of a file on the terminal screen. This command from Linux command list will help a user to explore the inner content of any file regardless of its extension.


cat [Option] [File]


cat testLinux testLinux1

Morning everyone,

How are you today?


  1. Grep command

The Grep command is used to find the contents of any files and to print it on the terminal. This command is helpful in searching a regular expression and to print the result with ease.


grep user /option/ filename

  1. The chmod command

The chmod (Change Mode) command allows a user to change the mode of user access and to change the permissions of files. The chmod command helps to set write, read, and execute permissions.


chmod u=rwe, g=rx, 0=r my file
//here u= users, g=group, o=other, r=read, w=write, and x=execute


  1. The Linux kill command

The kill command is used to kill or force stop a currently running process. This action will instantly stop the any program running on your Linux operating system, which is helpful in situations when the computer hangs.


kill [signal or option] PID(s)

  1. The sudo command

The sudo (“superuser do”) command allows the user who is permitted to execute command as another user on the system. By default, a sudo user will be required to enter his or her password (which is not necessarily the system’s password), and can run without authentication for a certain period of time.


sudo -V | -h | -l | -L | -v | -k | -K | -s | [ -H ] [-P ] [-S ] [ -b ] |
     [ -p prompt ] [ -c class|- ] [ -a auth_type ] [-r role ] [-t type ] 

     [ -u username|#uid ] command

  1. The chown command

The chown (Change Ownership ) command changes file ownership and can also change the ownership of all objects inside a directory. This command in the Linux command list also views the information regarding objects.


$ chmod u+x filename //add permission 

$ chmod u+r,g+x filename //add multiple permissions

$ chmod u-rx filename //delete permission

  1. The cmp command

The cmp (Compare) command compares two or more files that can be of different extensions and provides the result as a regular output. A user can use the cmp command in case it is required to compare two or more files by their type.


cmp [option]. file1 [file2 [skip1 [skip2]]]

These easy-to-follow and easy-to-implements Linux commands for beginners is a great way to navigate your way around the Linux operating system using its terminal.


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